Monday, December 15, 2014

Authors prefer traditional publishers to self-publishing. Surprised?

Writers prefer to be published by a traditional publisher over self-publishing. Go figure.

More than 9,000 authors responded to questions about the publishing industry in a report to be issued next week. Of the writers surveyed, 57.8% said they'd rather go the traditional route with their next book than try self-publishing.

These aren't just old-fashioned authors. That percentage includes writers who have been both self-published and traditionally published. What's more, the survey was conducted by Writers Digest and Digital Book World -- which certainly captures people interested in digital publishing.

Of course, traditional publishing houses publish e-books too. They'll be among those at the Digital Book World Conference, which takes place in New York next week. That's where the report will be presented with its full details.

Thursday, on the Digital Book World Site, Dana Beth Weinberg provides a preview of the Digital Book World and Writers Digest 2014 Author Survey. She writes:

"Despite the rise of self-publishing and the enthusiasm with which self-published authors celebrate its ascendance, overall, the authors surveyed are more interested in traditionally publishing their next book. The greatest preference for traditionally publishing was reported by traditionally published authors (87.2%) followed by not-yet-published authors (76.8%). Among authors who have self-published, more than half hoped to publish with traditional publishers -- 53.5% of self-published authors and 57.8% of hybrid authors."

A graph on the site shows more information. Most authors and aspiring writers are open to a mix of traditional publishing and self publishing; very few are dedicated to self-publishing only. Even among those who define themselves as self-published authors, more than half -- about 53% -- would prefer that their next book be published by a traditional publisher.

This is the second year that the survey has been conducted. It's a self-selecting survey of interested parties, so, Weinberg warns, the numbers aren't scientific. But it does show that traditional publishers are doing something right -- authors still like them lots.

Monday, December 8, 2014

Self-Publishing and the DIY Doom


 by Become a fan Artist and Columnist

Ever-empowering, DIY allows that you can do it yourself, but it does not mean that you should. Never before has there been such great opportunities for an author. Technology, globalization and the competition generated by the behemoth Amazon have created new avenues for a writer to maintain control of their work, keep their hard-earned profits and to distribute their book internationally. These are exciting times to put words to paper. DIY withstanding, a self-published book demands efforts that go far beyond an author's ink and foolscap. 

In truth, we are seeing a large number of books appearing in the market that should not be. Some books are not ready for publication. Some are undercooked and poorly executed. The engine and necessity of DIY has fueled the pipeline.

1. Book Covers: Nothing is more important than the cover of your book. A smart book cover is often times more powerful and valuable than the words within. This is hard for a writer to hear. 

A book cover needs more than a good design. A book cover needs a marketing mind to find your "sales" points and to create a visual representation, much the same way a film is presented to the public. When I was working in film promotion for the studios, the marketing executives lived in terror when a film director wanted to get involved in the process. These decisions were not within a director's best objectivity nor skill set. To market a film or a book, a successful process needs an objective appreciation for the material, an understanding of the genre and a grasp of the marketplace. Your book must find a fit, as well as stand apart from the crowd. A creative film director or a passionate author often lacks that perspective.

A solid book cover must convey the emotional attraction to your story and "sell" it. This means your book cover must attract, intrigue, inform and lastly and most importantly motivate the public to buy it. 

The written word remains King. No one recommends a book because the cover is awesome. Your words and story are the magic that creates a bestseller. Your tale wins an audience. However, the cycle starts with a smart, appropriate book cover. 

Not everyone can write a book. Not everyone is a designer. As a writer, our creativity flies in many directions at once. As you scribe a pivotal scene, your mind may also visit the hoped for moment when you receive an award for the book or a big fat check from your publisher. Writers invest in the fantasy but it takes an objective mind to define the reality. I spend much time weaning writers from bad design ideas. "I know you love your cat, but the photo of Twinkles will not work as a book cover!" A designer is an educated professional and design is a profession for many very good reasons.
"Most self-publishing authors have no budget, so they DIY whenever possible," says book designer Derek Murphy of CreativIndie. "They learn about cover design and book formatting and sales and marketing. But they don't learn it well."

2. Book Interior: The layout of your novel and the flow of your words along the pages are very important to the reading experience. These principles are also true for the e-book. The chapter page can be artful. Headings can evoke your genre. The appropriate font will tell part of your story. Just because you can Do It Yourself doesn't mean you should.

Writers spend many grueling hours on the keypad and many sleepless nights fretting about their words. That dedication, talent and sacrifice should not be wasted on a self-publishing DIY effort. "Indie authors have very poor taste in design style," says Murphy who has designed over 1,000 covers. 

3. Editorial: We know the challenge of perspective of the forest for the trees. A writer, no matter how skilled, needs an editor. At the very least, every book needs a copy edit. 

A software spellchecker has a hard time distinguishing between "bean" and "been" and "tale" and "tail." Only a human cognitive reader knows for sure. 

Writers, by tradition, are eternally broke and the cheaper alternative is always attractive. Globalization has opened up new pools of inexpensive labor and the internet makes it easy to find them. We like the idea of 'buying American" but we do not like paying for it; hence the success of Walmart. Some things cannot be outsourced. I have worked with many writers who found a good deal on Elance or oDesk with dire results. If you pay your laborer $10 a day, you should expect a $10 result. Editorial work requires a skill. "English speaking" in China or India does not mean one is savvy to the American vernacular. Nuance is local. Design and edit American!

Every writer knows of the value of a "fresh set of eyes." Many clients tell me of the positive comments they have received from friends and family; these are jaded focus groups that will never speak an unkind word. An author can only self-edit so far. A writer desperately needs the benefit of a fresh set of objective, uncompromising eyes. 

The new world of self-publishing offers many fresh realities and bold empowerments to the author. These are exciting times. Writers are finally in control of their work and their futures. Conversely, the old days of the publishing system created a better product. With departmental staffs of skilled and experienced creatives, a publishing house produced smarter words, an attractive package and effective marketing. The old system may be in decline but the unique talents that produced it are very much alive.

Derek Murphy answers, "My predictions for self-publishing? The majority of authors who try to completely DIY will fail." 

Publishing a book is a wild tangle of creative, legal and business decisions. Many things are ideal to DIY; heart surgery, nuclear fusion and self-publishing are not among them.

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Gordy Grundy is an artist, arts writer and author advisor. His visual and literary work can be found at www.GordyGrundy.com.

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You can find the original article at: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/gordy-grundy/self-publishing-and-the-diy-doom_b_6127610.html

Monday, December 1, 2014

The 5 Essential Story Ingredients

Imagine that I’m telling you about my day and I say, “I woke up. I ate breakfast. I left for work.”

Is that a story? After all, it has a protagonist who makes choices that lead to a natural progression of events, it contains three acts and it has a beginning, a middle and an end—and that’s what makes something a story, right?

Well, actually, no.

It’s not.
—By Steven James

My description of what I did this morning—while it may meet those commonly accepted criteria—contains no crisis, no struggle, no discovery, no transformation in the life of the main character. It’s a report, but it’s not a story.

Over the years as I’ve taught at writing conferences around the world, you should see some of the looks I’ve gotten when I tell people to stop thinking of a story in terms of its structure. And it’s easy to understand why.Spend enough time with writers or English teachers and you’ll hear the dictum that a story is something that has a beginning, middle and end. I know that the people who share this definition mean well, but it’s really not a very helpful one for storytellers. After all, a description of a pickle has a beginning, a middle and an end, but it’s not a story. The sentence, “Preheat the oven to 450 degrees,” has those basic elements, but it’s not a story either.

So then, what is a story?

Centuries ago, Aristotle noted in his book Poetics that while a story does have a beginning, a middle and an ending, the beginning is not simply the first event in a series of three, but rather the emotionally engaging originating event. The middle is the natural and causally related consequence, and the end is the inevitable conclusive event.

In other words, stories have an origination, an escalation of conflict, and a resolution.
Of course, stories also need a vulnerable character, a setting that’s integral to the narrative, meaningful choices that determine the outcome of the story, and reader empathy. But at its most basic level, a story is a transformation unveiled—either the transformation of a situation or, most commonly, the transformation of a character.
Simply put, you do not have a story until something goes wrong.

At its heart, a story is about a person dealing with tension, and tension is created by unfulfilled desire. Without forces of antagonism, without setbacks, without a crisis event that initiates the action, you have no story. The secret, then, to writing a story that draws readers in and keeps them turning pages is not to make more and more things happen to a character, and especially not to follow some preordained plot formula or novel-writing template. Instead, the key to writing better stories is to focus on creating more and more tension as your story unfolds.

Understanding the fundamentals at the heart of all good stories will help you tell your own stories better—and sell more of them, too. Imagine you’re baking a cake. You mix together certain ingredients in a specific order and end up with a product that is uniquely different than any individual ingredient. In the process of mixing and then baking the cake, these ingredients are transformed into something delicious.

That’s what you’re trying to do when you bake up a story.

So let’s look at five essential story ingredients, and then review how to mix them together to make your story so good readers will ask for seconds.

Ingredient #1: Orientation

The beginning of a story must grab the reader’s attention, orient her to the setting, mood and tone of the story, and introduce her to a protagonist she will care about, even worry about, and emotionally invest time and attention into. If readers don’t care about your protagonist, they won’t care about your story, either.


So, what’s the best way to introduce this all-important character? In essence, you want to set reader expectations and reveal a portrait of the main character by giving readers a glimpse of her normal life. If your protagonist is a detective, we want to see him at a crime scene. If you’re writing romance, we want to see normal life for the young woman who’s searching for love. Whatever portrait you draw of your character’s life, keep in mind that it will also serve as a promise to your readers of the transformation that this character will undergo as the story progresses.

For example, if you introduce us to your main character, Frank, the happily married man next door, readers instinctively know that Frank’s idyllic life is about to be turned upside down—most likely by the death of either his spouse or his marriage. Something will soon rock the boat and he will be altered forever. Because when we read about harmony at the start of a story, it’s a promise that discord is about to come. Readers expect this.

Please note that normal life doesn’t mean pain-free life. The story might begin while your protagonist is depressed, hopeless, grieving or trapped in a sinking submarine. Such circumstances could be what’s typical for your character at this moment. When that happens, it’s usually another crisis (whether internal or external) that will serve to kick-start the story. Which brings us to the second ingredient.

[Learn 5 Tools for Building Conflict in Your Novel]

Ingredient #2: Crisis

This crisis that tips your character’s world upside down must, of course, be one that your protagonist cannot immediately solve. It’s an unavoidable, irrevocable challenge that sets the movement of the story into motion.


Typically, your protagonist will have the harmony of both his external world and his internal world upset by the crisis that initiates the story. One of these two imbalances might have happened before the beginning of the story, but usually at least one will occur on the page for your readers to experience with your protagonist, and the interplay of these two dynamics will drive the story forward.

Depending on the genre, the crisis that alters your character’s world might be a call to adventure—a quest that leads to a new land, or a prophecy or revelation that he’s destined for great things. Mythic, fantasy and science-fiction novels often follow this pattern. In crime fiction, the crisis might be a new assignment to a seemingly unsolvable case. In romance, the crisis might be undergoing a divorce or breaking off an engagement.

In each case, though, life is changed and it will never be the same again.
George gets fired. Amber’s son is kidnapped. Larry finds out his cancer is terminal. Whatever it is, the normal life of the character is forever altered, and she is forced to deal with the difficulties that this crisis brings.

There are two primary ways to introduce a crisis into your story. Either begin the story by letting your character have what he desires most and then ripping it away, or by denying him what he desires most and then dangling it in front of him. So, he’ll either lose something vital and spend the story trying to regain it, or he’ll see something desirable and spend the story trying to obtain it.

Say you’ve imagined a character who desires love more than anything else. His deepest fear will be abandonment. You’ll either want to introduce the character by showing him in a satisfying, loving relationship, and then insert a crisis that destroys it, or you’ll want to show the character’s initial longing for a mate, and then dangle a promising relationship just out of his reach so that he can pursue it throughout the story.

Likewise, if your character desires freedom most, then he’ll try to avoid enslavement. So, you might begin by showing that he’s free, and then enslave him, or begin by showing that he’s enslaved, and then thrust him into a freedom-pursuing adventure.

It all has to do with what the main character desires, and what he wishes to avoid.

[Learn important writing lessons from these first-time novelists.]

Ingredient #3: Escalation

There are two types of characters in every story—pebble people and putty people.

If you take a pebble and throw it against a wall, it’ll bounce off the wall unchanged. But if you throw a ball of putty against a wall hard enough, it will change shape.

Always in a story, your main character needs to be a putty person.

When you throw him into the crisis of the story, he is forever changed, and he will take whatever steps he can to try and solve his struggle—that is, to get back to his original shape (life before the crisis).

But he will fail.

Because he’ll always be a different shape at the end of the story than he was at the beginning. If he’s not, readers won’t be satisfied.

Putty people are altered.

Pebble people remain the same. They’re like set pieces. They appear onstage in the story, but they don’t change in essential ways as the story progresses. They’re the same at the ending as they were at the beginning.

And they are not very interesting.

So, exactly what kind of wall are we throwing our putty person against?

First, stop thinking of plot in terms of what happens in your story. Rather, think of it as payoff for the promises you’ve made early in the story. Plot is the journey toward transformation.

As I mentioned earlier, typically two crisis events interweave to form the multilayered stories that today’s readers expect: an external struggle that needs to be overcome, and an internal struggle that needs to be resolved. As your story progresses, then, the consequences of not solving those two struggles need to become more and more intimate, personal and devastating. If you do this, then as the stakes are raised, the two struggles will serve to drive the story forward and deepen reader engagement and interest.

Usually if a reader says she’s bored or that “nothing’s happening in the story,” she doesn’t necessarily mean that events aren’t occurring, but rather that she doesn’t see the protagonist taking natural, logical steps to try and solve his struggle. During the escalation stage of your story, let your character take steps to try and resolve the two crises (internal and external) and get back to the way things were earlier, before his world was tipped upside down.

[Here's how to turn traumatic experiences into fuel for your writing.]

Ingredient #4: Discovery

At the climax of the story, the protagonist will make a discovery that changes his life.

Typically, this discovery will be made through wit (as the character cleverly pieces together clues from earlier in the story) or grit (as the character shows extraordinary perseverance or tenacity) to overcome the crisis event (or meet the calling) he’s been given.

The internal discovery and the external resolution help reshape our putty person’s life and circumstances forever.

The protagonist’s discovery must come from a choice that she makes, not simply by chance or from a Wise Answer-Giver. While mentors might guide a character toward self-discovery, the decisions and courage that determine the outcome of the story must come
from the protagonist.


In one of the paradoxes of storytelling, the reader wants to predict how the story will end (or how it will get to the end), but he wants to be wrong. So, the resolution of the story will be most satisfying when it ends in a way that is both inevitable and unexpected.

[Understanding Book Contracts: Learn what’s negotiable and what’s not.]

Ingredient #5: Change

Think of a caterpillar entering a cocoon. Once he does so, one of two things will happen: He will either transform into a butterfly, or he will die. But no matter what else happens, he will never climb out of the cocoon as a caterpillar.


So it is with your protagonist.

As you frame your story and develop your character, ask yourself, “What is my caterpillar doing?” Your character will either be transformed into someone more mature, insightful or at peace, or will plunge into death or despair.

Although genre can dictate the direction of this transformation—horror stories will often end with some kind of death (physical, psychological, emotional or spiritual)—most genres are butterfly genres. Most stories end with the protagonist experiencing new life—whether that’s physical renewal, psychological understanding, emotional healing or a spiritual awakening.

This change marks the resolution of the crisis and the culmination of the story.

As a result of facing the struggle and making this new discovery, the character will move to a new normal. The character’s actions or attitude at the story’s end show us how she’s changed from the story’s inception. The putty has become a new shape, and if it’s thrown against the wall again, the reader will understand that a brand-new story is now unfolding. The old way of life has been forever changed by the process of moving through the struggle to the discovery and into a new and different life.

Letting Structure Follow Story

I don’t have any idea how many acts my novels contain.

A great many writing instructors, classes and manuals teach that all stories should have three acts—and, honestly, that doesn’t make much sense to me. After all, in theater, you’ll find successful one-act, two-act, three-act and four-act plays. And most assuredly, they are all stories.

If you’re writing a novel that people won’t read in one sitting (which is presumably every novel), your readers couldn’t care less about how many acts there are—in fact, they probably won’t even be able to keep track of them. What readers really care about is the forward movement of the story as it escalates to its inevitable and unexpected conclusion.

While it’s true that structuring techniques can be helpful tools, unfortunately, formulaic approaches frequently send stories spiraling off in the wrong direction or, just as bad, handcuff the narrative flow. Often the people who advocate funneling your story into a predetermined three-act structure will note that stories have the potential to sag or stall out during the long second act. And whenever I hear that, I think, Then why not shorten it? Or chop it up and include more acts? Why let the story suffer just so you can follow a formula?

I have a feeling that if you asked the people who teach three-act structure if they’d rather have a story that closely follows their format, or one that intimately connects with readers, they would go with the latter. Why? Because I’m guessing that deep down, even they know that in the end, story trumps structure.

Once I was speaking with another writing instructor and he told me that the three acts form the skeleton of a story. I wasn’t sure how to respond to that until I was at an aquarium with my daughter later that week and I saw an octopus. I realized that it got along pretty well without a skeleton. A storyteller’s goal is to give life to a story, not to stick in bones that aren’t necessary for that species of tale.

So, stop thinking of a story as something that happens in three acts, or two acts, or four or seven, or as something that is driven by predetermined elements of plot. Rather, think of your story as an organic whole that reveals a transformation in the life of your character. The number of acts or events should be determined by the movement of the story, not the other way around.

Because story trumps structure.

If you render a portrait of the protagonist’s life in such a way that we can picture his world and also care about what happens to him, we’ll be drawn into the story. If you present us with an emotionally stirring crisis or calling, we’ll get hooked. If you show the stakes rising as the character struggles to solve this crisis, you’ll draw us in more deeply. And if you end the story in a surprising yet logical way that reveals a transformation of the main character’s life, we’ll be satisfied and anxious to read your next story.

The ingredients come together, and the cake tastes good.

Always be ready to avoid formulas, discard acts and break the “rules” for the sake of the story—which is another way of saying: Always be ready to do it for the sake of your readers.

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 You can find the original article at: http://www.writersdigest.com/online-editor/the-5-essential-story-ingredients

Monday, November 24, 2014

Copycat Culture: Adapting to a World of Adaptations

When it comes to fiction - which today includes television, movies, video games, and other narrative media - copying someone else's ideas is nothing new. The Romans, after all, openly borrowed most of their gods from the Greek pantheon; the Greeks, in turn, clearly adopted and adapted elements from the animistic, agriculture religions that preceded them; and whether by divine fiat or imaginative inspiration, many events recorded in the Christian Bible explicitly echo earlier narratives in the Jewish Torah. Indeed, there is some reason to believe that the stock of basic human narratives is relatively small: in the twentieth century, thinkers as different as Carl Jung, Joseph Campbell, and Northrop Frye each developed interpretive systems based on groups of supposedly universal archetypes or stories like "the shadow" and "the journey home."

One doesn't need to accept Jung's hypothesis of a "collective unconscious," however, to see that sharing, borrowing, or outright stealing someone else's ideas have long been the engines behind narrative evolutions and variations. For a long time in Western culture, moreover, this wasn't a problem. At least from the Renaissance through much of the eighteenth century, "to emulate" was a very positive verb, the key to success both socially and artistically. Of course there were always iconoclasts; Sir Phillip Sidney, for example, could joke in the opening sonnet of his "Astrophil and Stella" sequence that "Other's feet [i.e. lines of verse] still seem'd but strangers in my way," and end with his Muse's command: "Look in thy heart, and write." But of course Sidney didn't invent the idea of a Muse, which means that even his image of inspiration's source was unoriginal!

By and large, it was not until the end of the 18th century that British poets began to prize originality and imagination over mere craftsmanship and wit. Even as he drew on biblical and mythological sources, the Romantic-era poet and artist William Blake articulated the stakes of his determination to be original: "I must Create a System or be enslaved by another Man's." Today's authors - or at least their publishers, and certainly their publisher's lawyers - still claim to put a premium on this kind of originality, for legal reasons if not for Blake's ethical ones. Such statements of originality, ironically, now literally come standard on the copyright page of every newly published novel: "[xxx] is a work of fiction. Names, characters, places, and incidents are the products of the author's imagination or are used fictitiously. Any resemblance to actual events, locales, or persons, living or dead, is entirely coincidental." So please take a moment to admire with me the irony that the insight "Good artists borrow; great artists steal" is variously attributed to T.S. Eliot, Pablo Picasso, and Igor Stravinsky!

Instead of decrying fiction's perennial lack of originality, we should celebrate it. The concept of intellectual property is still important, of course, if only so that writers and artists are fairly compensated for their work. Meanwhile, several strands of literary criticism and theory have recently sprung up to make sense of our copycat culture: "Adaptation Studies," analyzes the various ways narratives, images, and forms cross texts and even media to take on new meanings, often quite subversively; "Intertextuality" focuses specifically on allusions and echoes, intentional and otherwise, that link authors and texts; and "Media Archaeology" examines the history and evolution of forms and technologies of representation, the better to understand where our digital future is taking us.

One of the most common and obvious forms that adaptation takes in our culture today is the jump from book to movie. (There are now entire websites devoted to tracking these connections.) Purists still insist that we must "read the book!" first, and as an English professor I'm not going to argue with this admonition. But what happens when the movie is arguably better than the book on which it's based? This, of course, depends on one's definition of "better" - but if we can agree that "better" in these cases means some combination of more entertaining, more thoughtful, and truer to human experience, then it seems clear that on some occasions, the copy is indeed better than the original. Many of Alfred Hitchcock's best movies, for example, are far more rewarding than the often-obscure source materials on which they're based; more recently, many reviewers agreed that David Fincher's movie adaptation of Gone Girl improved on Gillian Flynn's original novel. For every example of a movie that improves on the original book, however, there are probably five movies that flatten, simplify, or just plain ruin their sources. Indeed, I'm hardly the first person to note that, where creativity on screen is concerned, much of the best work has shifted to TV, where shows like Mad Men and True Detective take risks that Hollywood often can't or won't. Again, though, it's important to distinguish creativity from originality; while these shows have plenty of imagination, they wear their narrative and tonal debts (to mid-century American bildungsroman, in the case of the former; to southern Gothic and noir mysteries, in the case of the latter) on their small-screen sleeves.

Working with - and hopefully, at least sometimes, improving upon - someone else's ideas is not only inevitable, but invaluable. Let's do it honestly, and let's commit to celebrating it when it's done well. But in case you don't like anything I've just written, please remember: Any resemblance to actual events, locales, or persons, living or dead, is entirely coincidental.

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You find the original article at: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/evan-gottlieb/copycat-culture-adapting-_b_6174414.html?utm_hp_ref=books&ir=Books

Monday, November 17, 2014

How the end of the Cold War changed spy fiction

by Jane Ciabattari 
When the Berlin Wall came down, spy fiction would never be the same again. It was time for its writers to find new enemies, writes Jane Ciabattari.


The Cold War offered a perfect backdrop for spy fiction.  Masters of espionage like Ian Fleming’s James Bond, John le Carré’s George Smiley and Len Deighton’s Harry Palmer squared off against their communist counterparts in a global chess game with highly calculated moves and obvious goals, risks and rewards. Betrayals and deceptions complicated the matter, but the enemies were clear-cut. British intelligence officer Smiley against his KGB counterpart Karla. Us versus them. “During the Cold War, any reader opening a spy novel understood the handful of possible conflicts they would find,” says spy fiction author Olen Steinhauer. “It would be East v West, or the hero against political corruption – greedy Westerners destroying their own system.

Readers of Cold War spy fiction were drawn into identifying double agents (as in Frederick Forsyth’s The Fourth Protocol) and fantasising about the effects of brainwashing (Deighton’s The Ipcress File). We were presented with spycraft on a human scale, without the satellite surveillance and mobile phone tracking systems  of today’s hi-tech thrillers. Characters suffered from psychological as well as physical stress. James Bond is on the verge of a nervous breakdown after his new bride is killed in You Only Live Twice. The Spy Who Came in from the Cold ends with a devastating portrait of the effect of years of duplicity on agents constantly justifying acts at odds with their moral values. But there were pleasures as well – dinners in fine restaurants, romantic dalliances, vicarious visits to far-flung parts of the world out of the range of most readers, including countries behind the Iron Curtain.

The end of the Cold War made it necessary to find new enemies. “When the Cold War ended, the genre lost a perfect adversary,” says spy fiction author Joseph Kanon. Writers could no longer depend upon an easy polarity. “Russia remains, but as a threatening kleptocracy,” says Steinhauer, whose Milo Weaver trilogy focusses on relations between the US and China, just one facet of a post-Cold War world that has many existential conflicts: “Terrorism existed as a subject during the Cold War, but now, of course, it's become a primary source of narrative conflict. And the complex relationships between Middle Eastern states and religious extremists make for more fictional fodder. Political corruption at home never goes away, but the American relationship to European states has become more complex,” he says. “The rise of electronic surveillance and the hero-status of the whistleblower... these things are all excellent subjects.” For his 2014 novel The Cairo Affair, Steinhauer worked almost in real time, chronicling Libya and post-Mubarak Cairo during the Arab Spring.

New world order

After 1989 it was time to rethink the spy game in fiction entirely. “I always wrote about people groaning under the moral weight of the Cold War and begging to get out,” John le Carré told the New York Times after the Berlin Wall came down. “I'm absolutely delighted to be presented with a new pack of cards.” And he dealt them out into plotlines featuring the international drug trade, the Russian mafia, money laundering and corporate corruption. In The Constant Gardener (2001), which is set in “dangerous, decaying, plundered, bankrupt, once-British Kenya,” he takes on pharmaceutical companies who used citizens in developing countries as guinea pigs in drug trials.

Soon le Carré was writing of the international war on terror and American operatives who justify torture and extraordinary rendition (as in his 2008 novel A Most Wanted Man), and their British allies. His character Toby Bell, a rising star in the British foreign service who seeks his country’s “true identity in a post-imperial, post Cold War world”, bears a resemblance to Edward Snowden. Frederick Forsyth also has followed the headlines. He set The Fist of War (1994) during the first Gulf War. The CIA, MI6 and Pakistan’s ISI battled al Qaeda in his 2006 novel The Afghan. And The Kill List (2013) features an internet-based ‘preacher’ who calls upon radical Muslims for assassinations of leaders in the US and Britain.

Some contemporary writers have chosen to set their books in the past, in the certainties of the Cold War, or even the period before it, rather than updating them for the uncertainties of the present day. Alan Furst‘s atmospheric thrillers (12 to date, most recently Midnight in Europe) take place in the 1930s and early ’40s, when Sovietand Western intelligence operatives joined forces to fend off the growing Nazi juggernaut.  Joseph Kanon focuses on the immediate postwar period, setting The Prodigal Spy (1998) and The Good German (2001) in 1945, “a pivotal time, the beginning of the world we live in now,” he says. For Istanbul Passage (2012) he turned to “a neutral city near the Balkans, a perfect listening post, a mecca for spies and a prime staging area for the Mossad in helping rescue trapped European Jews.”

The Cold War may prove to be an unparalleled inspiration for spy fiction.  But the essence of spy fiction hasn’t changed. Readers expect identifiable heroes defending against external foes. What has changed forever is the starkly black-and-white nature the Cold War lent the genre. The more ambivalent spies, says Steinhauer, “go about their jobs with a measure of anxiety, dealing with the moral burden – the subterfuge and lying the job requires.”  Readers have become accustomed to seeing the flaws in our own system, and in ourselves, thanks to sceptical portraits by these masters of Cold War spy fiction. This era of clearly defined heroes and villains has given way to the blurred lines, shifting allegiances and ambiguity of today.

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You can find the original article at: http://www.bbc.com/culture/story/20141107-spies-who-came-in-from-the-cold

Monday, November 10, 2014

Scientists outshine arts students with experiments in creative writing

With no publication angst and a killer work ethic, science students easily match their peers in the humanities in the art of creative writing. It even makes them better scientists


We are eating noodles in the sunshine at Imperial College, London, when my former student tells me about his invention. “Meet SAM,” says Joachim and places his prototypes on the bench – a tiny switch and actuator that will allow everyone to make wireless smart things without knowing anything about coding or electronics. A jacket that heats up when your body temperature drops, a fridge that warns you’re out of milk – it’s an Internet of Things idea and the applications seem endless once you start connecting people and objects. While Joachim answers my questions about how he and his team will manage the journey from inspiration to execution, I’m reminded of another conversation we once had about risk.

It was inspired by a story about an assassin in the murderous heat of a noonday piazza – one of those ambitious narratives whose success depends entirely upon managing uncertainty. For I am a novelist and Joachim is a mechanical engineer who took my creative writing class as part of his degree, and he outlines his business plan with the same passion and precision as he wrote that short story.

For the past three years I have taught creative writing to students in science, technology, engineering and medicine at Imperial who can take humanities options for credit. It was the interdisciplinary challenge that intrigued me, but I’ll admit to being sceptical about the students’ writing potential. So I was delighted to be proved wrong: their writing is easily as good – and often better – than that of creative writing students I have taught elsewhere, including at the University of East Anglia. And my external assessors – also writers who teach and hold PhDs from UEA – agree.

“I hate the perception that scientists and engineers struggle with any arts subject,” says my student Chris Winchurch (electrical engineering). Most of these AAA/A*A*A* undergrads at the world’s second-ranked university abandoned formal humanities at 16, so creative writing is a grade gamble. But they are eager to explore their potential and to resolve a certain tension between their artistic and scientific interests.

On the first day we rearrange the furniture. Stem students (science, technology, engineering and maths) spend their days in labs and lecture theatres and this is very often the first time they sit face-to-face to discuss ideas and peer review. Their communication skills need liberating, their critical vocabulary is underdeveloped. Farah Shair (biochemistry) tells me the first homework on character felt like “reaching inside my brain to find a part that hasn’t been used for so long”. Chris admits that it was “a lot harder than I anticipated to switch from modules with correct answers and rigid methodologies into a much more subtle and subjective world, but in the end it was the highlight of my week”.

We set sail with three rules: observe the world; read attentively; get black on white.

During the year of reading and writing and observing, students learn to tolerate uncertainty in process and outcome, embrace risk (creative, intellectual and performance) and practice humility – since writing is an exercise in failing better each time. Their writing is imaginative in theme and topic. They do not fall fatally in love with their work and will abandon experimental dead ends. Their killer work ethic sustains them through the endless revision that is essential to good writing.
  “They are technically and creatively ambitious,” says Laura Fish, an external examiner for the course and senior lecturer in creative writing at Northumbria. “Inventive risk-takers who look at story and subvert,” adds playwright and fiction writer Laura Bridgeman, a moderator for the course who has taught creative writing at four different UK universities. They are interested in writing that will engage a reader – which makes them perfect raw material for workshops where work must always be placed ahead of ego.

Best of all, Imperial’s creative students are not obsessed with publication as an end goal. Like Junot Diaz‘s students at MIT, Imperial’s students are “not all trying to be novelists”. This makes them particularly exciting to teach, since they are completely absorbed in the creative process and spared the torment that afflicts so many students on creative writing degrees.


The debate about creative writing studies continually circles around this issue of publication, and distracts from the far more interesting question about its effect on intellectual and personal development. Stem students discover unexpected synergies between their scientific and artistic talents. Fanny Heneine (civil engineering) says she “produces more creative and well-thought solutions to engineering problems”. Alumnus Stuart Holland, now a software engineer, alternates between programming and creative writing projects to exercise “two different yet complementary forms of creative problem solving”. James Owen (biology) reflects on the potential for creative writing to engage the public in “what is current and exciting in science”.

As I write, Joachim and his team are well on the way from dream to execution: SAM Labs has ignited the technology press and smashed through its funding targets. According to Joachim, the “constant questioning and endless iterations” of his startup experience are very similar to creative writing.

“The most profound lesson I learned from creative writing studies was about the impact of science on society,” concludes Stefan Grossfurthner (biotechnology). A year of reading and writing fiction raises all sorts of ethical and moral questions that inspire Stem students to apply their talent for sceptical enquiry to an analysis of human behaviour.

And isn’t this precisely what we would all wish for our scientists, engineers, technologists and doctors – that the men and women who build, design, code, fix and shape our world are enriched by their exploration of our human condition?

Aifric Campbell’s third novel, On the Floor, is published by Serpent’s Tail


_________________________________ 

You can find the original article at: http://www.theguardian.com/books/booksblog/2014/nov/06/scientists-outshine-arts-students-with-experiments-in-creative-writing

Monday, November 3, 2014

Selling e-Books in Europe Is About to Get a Lot More Complicated


Selling e-books into the European market is about to get a lot more complicated for retailers and publishers from the 1st of January, 2015. And when I say publishers, I include author-publishers selling e-books directly from their websites. The new European Union (EU) law comes into affect next year across all 28-member states and addresses VAT paid on e-books and other digital services (including broadcasting and telecommunications). Up until now VAT rates on digital services and products were applied according to the VAT rate in the country where the product was sold, but next year the VAT applied will be the rate set by the European member state the customer purchases the product.


The EU was once about breaking down borders and making trade easier between member states, but the reality is that EU member states apply different rates of VAT on digital products and services, mostly between 15-20%. However, Luxembourg applies a very low rate of just 3%.  Enter Amazon EU S.a.r.L. (registered and based in Luxembourg) stage right to exploit the tax loophole years ago, followed by Amazon EU S.a.r.L. exit, stage left! Yes, that might put some sense on the curious email I received at the start of this month from Amazon KDP.


Dear Sir or Madam,

This is to inform you that on 1st November 2014, Amazon EU S.à r.l. will be replaced as a party to your Kindle Direct Publishing Agreement with another Amazon company, Amazon Media EU S.à r.l.

If you need to send us any legal notices or refer to our EU VAT number after 1st November 2014, please use the following details:

Amazon Media EU S.à r.l.
5 Rue Plaetis, L-2338 Luxembourg, Luxembourg
VAT Registration Number: LU 20944528


If you are owed any EU royalty payments after 1st November 2014, you may begin receiving these payments from Amazon Media EU S.à r.l. rather than Amazon EU S.à r.l. Otherwise, this change will not impact your relationship with us in any way.

Thank you for your continued support.

Best regards,

Amazon EU S.à r.l.





The Bookseller's journalistic soldiers of misfortune — Lisa Campbell and Sarah Shaffi — were tasked with putting sense on this potential minefield and did an admirable job.


The move prevents Amazon, Nook and Kobo from applying a low 3% tax on e-books sold to European countries, because their headquarters are in Luxembourg. Instead, the e-book retailers will have to apply the standard UK VAT rate (20%) to e-books sold into the UK. As a result, Luxembourg stands to lose around €800m a year from the ruling, while the UK and Germany stand to gain around €350m each per annum.



It also threatens to raise the price of UK e-books on Amazon, Kobo and Nook websites come January, and begs the question of who will carry the burden of the extra VAT charge those retailers will have to pay. 


....



From this date, supplies of these services to any non-VAT registered consumer will be subject to the rate of VAT applicable in the customer’s location—not necessarily straightforward to determine in itself—and, as a result, businesses will need to remit payment to each EU member state where sales occur. To avoid the need to register in up to 28 different EU member states, publishers can opt for the Mini One-Stop Shop (MOSS) alternative: registering in its home jurisdiction only, and submitting only one return and payment.

  
MOSS: good news or bad?

  
Businesses can apply for MOSS registration as of October 2014, so that the system is ready to use from 1st January 2015. On the face of it, MOSS is good news. However, there is a nasty “sting in the tail” if businesses fail to comply with the MOSS requirements in each of the 28 member states in which they trade.


.....



While the question of whether retailers will attempt to push extra VAT charges onto publishers and the possibility of higher e-book prices, perhaps the other question will be how the author-publisher deals with this when it comes to direct sales via a website and running a small business.


Like all new laws designed to curb big businesses finding loopholes, they will absorb these changes a lot easier. I fear this may actually hurt the two most important people in the book world as usual — the reader and the author.

- See more at: http://www.theindependentpublishingmagazine.com/2014/10/selling-e-books-in-europe-is-about-to.html#sthash.UZfoo8ii.dpuf

_____________________________

Mick Rooney – Publishing Consultant
If you found this review or article helpful, but you’re still looking for a suitable self-publishing provider to fit your needs as an author, then I’m sure I can help. As a publishing consultant and editor of this magazine, I’ve reviewed and examined in detail more than 150 providers throughout the world like the one above. As a self-published and traditionally published author of nine books, I understand your needs on the path to publication and beyond. So, before you spend hundreds or thousands, and a great deal of your time, why not book one of my personally tailored and affordable consultation sessions today? Click here for more details.
- See more at: http://www.theindependentpublishingmagazine.com/2014/10/selling-e-books-in-europe-is-about-to.html#sthash.UZfoo8ii.dpuf
 
Mick Rooney – Publishing Consultant

If you found this review or article helpful, but you’re still looking for a suitable self-publishing provider to fit your needs as an author, then I’m sure I can help. As a publishing consultant and editor of this magazine, I’ve reviewed and examined in detail more than 150 providers throughout the world like the one above. As a self-published and traditionally published author of nine books, I understand your needs on the path to publication and beyond. So, before you spend hundreds or thousands, and a great deal of your time, why not book one of my personally tailored and affordable consultation sessions today?

Click here for more details.


- See more at: http://www.theindependentpublishingmagazine.com/2014/10/selling-e-books-in-europe-is-about-to.html#sthash.UZfoo8ii.dpuf



Mick Rooney – Publishing Consultant
If you found this review or article helpful, but you’re still looking for a suitable self-publishing provider to fit your needs as an author, then I’m sure I can help. As a publishing consultant and editor of this magazine, I’ve reviewed and examined in detail more than 150 providers throughout the world like the one above. As a self-published and traditionally published author of nine books, I understand your needs on the path to publication and beyond. So, before you spend hundreds or thousands, and a great deal of your time, why not book one of my personally tailored and affordable consultation sessions today? Click here for more details.
- See more at: http://www.theindependentpublishingmagazine.com/2014/10/selling-e-books-in-europe-is-about-to.html#sthash.UZfoo8ii.dpuf
Mick Rooney – Publishing Consultant
If you found this review or article helpful, but you’re still looking for a suitable self-publishing provider to fit your needs as an author, then I’m sure I can help. As a publishing consultant and editor of this magazine, I’ve reviewed and examined in detail more than 150 providers throughout the world like the one above. As a self-published and traditionally published author of nine books, I understand your needs on the path to publication and beyond. So, before you spend hundreds or thousands, and a great deal of your time, why not book one of my personally tailored and affordable consultation sessions today? Click here for more details.
- See more at: http://www.theindependentpublishingmagazine.com/2014/10/selling-e-books-in-europe-is-about-to.html#sthash.UZfoo8ii.dpuf

_____________________________
 
You can find the original article at:  http://www.theindependentpublishingmagazine.com/2014/10/selling-e-books-in-europe-is-about-to.html



Selling e-books into the European market is about to get a lot more complicated for retailers and publishers from the 1st of January, 2015. And when I say publishers, I include author-publishers selling e-books directly from their websites. The new European Union (EU) law comes into affect next year across all 28-member states and addresses VAT paid on e-books and other digital services (including broadcasting and telecommunications). Up until now VAT rates on digital services and products were applied according to the VAT rate in the country where the product was sold, but next year the VAT applied will be the rate set by the European member state the customer purchases the product.


The EU was once about breaking down borders and making trade easier between member states, but the reality is that EU member states apply different rates of VAT on digital products and services, mostly between 15-20%. However, Luxembourg applies a very low rate of just 3%.  Enter Amazon EU S.a.r.L. (registered and based in Luxembourg) stage right to exploit the tax loophole years ago, followed by Amazon EU S.a.r.L. exit, stage left! Yes, that might put some sense on the curious email I received at the start of this month from Amazon KDP.


Dear Sir or Madam,

This is to inform you that on 1st November 2014, Amazon EU S.à r.l. will be replaced as a party to your Kindle Direct Publishing Agreement with another Amazon company, Amazon Media EU S.à r.l.

If you need to send us any legal notices or refer to our EU VAT number after 1st November 2014, please use the following details:

Amazon Media EU S.à r.l.
5 Rue Plaetis, L-2338 Luxembourg, Luxembourg
VAT Registration Number: LU 20944528

If you are owed any EU royalty payments after 1st November 2014, you may begin receiving these payments from Amazon Media EU S.à r.l. rather than Amazon EU S.à r.l. Otherwise, this change will not impact your relationship with us in any way.

Thank you for your continued support.

Best regards,

Amazon EU S.à r.l.


The Bookseller's journalistic soldiers of misfortune — Lisa Campbell and Sarah Shaffi — were tasked with putting sense on this potential minefield and did an admirable job.


The move prevents Amazon, Nook and Kobo from applying a low 3% tax on e-books sold to European countries, because their headquarters are in Luxembourg. Instead, the e-book retailers will have to apply the standard UK VAT rate (20%) to e-books sold into the UK. As a result, Luxembourg stands to lose around €800m a year from the ruling, while the UK and Germany stand to gain around €350m each per annum.





It also threatens to raise the price of UK e-books on Amazon, Kobo and Nook websites come January, and begs the question of who will carry the burden of the extra VAT charge those retailers will have to pay.





....





From this date, supplies of these services to any non-VAT registered consumer will be subject to the rate of VAT applicable in the customer’s location—not necessarily straightforward to determine in itself—and, as a result, businesses will need to remit payment to each EU member state where sales occur. To avoid the need to register in up to 28 different EU member states, publishers can opt for the Mini One-Stop Shop (MOSS) alternative: registering in its home jurisdiction only, and submitting only one return and payment.





MOSS: good news or bad?





Businesses can apply for MOSS registration as of October 2014, so that the system is ready to use from 1st January 2015. On the face of it, MOSS is good news. However, there is a nasty “sting in the tail” if businesses fail to comply with the MOSS requirements in each of the 28 member states in which they trade.


.....


While the question of whether retailers will attempt to push extra VAT charges onto publishers and the possibility of higher e-book prices, perhaps the other question will be how the author-publisher deals with this when it comes to direct sales via a website and running a small business.


Like all new laws designed to curb big businesses finding loopholes, they will absorb these changes a lot easier. I fear this may actually hurt the two most important people in the book world as usual — the reader and the author.
- See more at: http://www.theindependentpublishingmagazine.com/2014/10/selling-e-books-in-europe-is-about-to.html#sthash.UZfoo8ii.dpuf
Selling e-books into the European market is about to get a lot more complicated for retailers and publishers from the 1st of January, 2015. And when I say publishers, I include author-publishers selling e-books directly from their websites. The new European Union (EU) law comes into affect next year across all 28-member states and addresses VAT paid on e-books and other digital services (including broadcasting and telecommunications). Up until now VAT rates on digital services and products were applied according to the VAT rate in the country where the product was sold, but next year the VAT applied will be the rate set by the European member state the customer purchases the product.


The EU was once about breaking down borders and making trade easier between member states, but the reality is that EU member states apply different rates of VAT on digital products and services, mostly between 15-20%. However, Luxembourg applies a very low rate of just 3%.  Enter Amazon EU S.a.r.L. (registered and based in Luxembourg) stage right to exploit the tax loophole years ago, followed by Amazon EU S.a.r.L. exit, stage left! Yes, that might put some sense on the curious email I received at the start of this month from Amazon KDP.


Dear Sir or Madam,

This is to inform you that on 1st November 2014, Amazon EU S.à r.l. will be replaced as a party to your Kindle Direct Publishing Agreement with another Amazon company, Amazon Media EU S.à r.l.

If you need to send us any legal notices or refer to our EU VAT number after 1st November 2014, please use the following details:

Amazon Media EU S.à r.l.
5 Rue Plaetis, L-2338 Luxembourg, Luxembourg
VAT Registration Number: LU 20944528

If you are owed any EU royalty payments after 1st November 2014, you may begin receiving these payments from Amazon Media EU S.à r.l. rather than Amazon EU S.à r.l. Otherwise, this change will not impact your relationship with us in any way.

Thank you for your continued support.

Best regards,

Amazon EU S.à r.l.


The Bookseller's journalistic soldiers of misfortune — Lisa Campbell and Sarah Shaffi — were tasked with putting sense on this potential minefield and did an admirable job.


The move prevents Amazon, Nook and Kobo from applying a low 3% tax on e-books sold to European countries, because their headquarters are in Luxembourg. Instead, the e-book retailers will have to apply the standard UK VAT rate (20%) to e-books sold into the UK. As a result, Luxembourg stands to lose around €800m a year from the ruling, while the UK and Germany stand to gain around €350m each per annum.





It also threatens to raise the price of UK e-books on Amazon, Kobo and Nook websites come January, and begs the question of who will carry the burden of the extra VAT charge those retailers will have to pay.





....





From this date, supplies of these services to any non-VAT registered consumer will be subject to the rate of VAT applicable in the customer’s location—not necessarily straightforward to determine in itself—and, as a result, businesses will need to remit payment to each EU member state where sales occur. To avoid the need to register in up to 28 different EU member states, publishers can opt for the Mini One-Stop Shop (MOSS) alternative: registering in its home jurisdiction only, and submitting only one return and payment.





MOSS: good news or bad?





Businesses can apply for MOSS registration as of October 2014, so that the system is ready to use from 1st January 2015. On the face of it, MOSS is good news. However, there is a nasty “sting in the tail” if businesses fail to comply with the MOSS requirements in each of the 28 member states in which they trade.


.....


While the question of whether retailers will attempt to push extra VAT charges onto publishers and the possibility of higher e-book prices, perhaps the other question will be how the author-publisher deals with this when it comes to direct sales via a website and running a small business.


Like all new laws designed to curb big businesses finding loopholes, they will absorb these changes a lot easier. I fear this may actually hurt the two most important people in the book world as usual — the reader and the author.
- See more at: http://www.theindependentpublishingmagazine.com/2014/10/selling-e-books-in-europe-is-about-to.html#sthash.UZfoo8ii.dpuf
Selling e-books into the European market is about to get a lot more complicated for retailers and publishers from the 1st of January, 2015. And when I say publishers, I include author-publishers selling e-books directly from their websites. The new European Union (EU) law comes into affect next year across all 28-member states and addresses VAT paid on e-books and other digital services (including broadcasting and telecommunications). Up until now VAT rates on digital services and products were applied according to the VAT rate in the country where the product was sold, but next year the VAT applied will be the rate set by the European member state the customer purchases the product.


The EU was once about breaking down borders and making trade easier between member states, but the reality is that EU member states apply different rates of VAT on digital products and services, mostly between 15-20%. However, Luxembourg applies a very low rate of just 3%.  Enter Amazon EU S.a.r.L. (registered and based in Luxembourg) stage right to exploit the tax loophole years ago, followed by Amazon EU S.a.r.L. exit, stage left! Yes, that might put some sense on the curious email I received at the start of this month from Amazon KDP.


Dear Sir or Madam,

This is to inform you that on 1st November 2014, Amazon EU S.à r.l. will be replaced as a party to your Kindle Direct Publishing Agreement with another Amazon company, Amazon Media EU S.à r.l.

If you need to send us any legal notices or refer to our EU VAT number after 1st November 2014, please use the following details:

Amazon Media EU S.à r.l.
5 Rue Plaetis, L-2338 Luxembourg, Luxembourg
VAT Registration Number: LU 20944528

If you are owed any EU royalty payments after 1st November 2014, you may begin receiving these payments from Amazon Media EU S.à r.l. rather than Amazon EU S.à r.l. Otherwise, this change will not impact your relationship with us in any way.

Thank you for your continued support.

Best regards,

Amazon EU S.à r.l.


The Bookseller's journalistic soldiers of misfortune — Lisa Campbell and Sarah Shaffi — were tasked with putting sense on this potential minefield and did an admirable job.


The move prevents Amazon, Nook and Kobo from applying a low 3% tax on e-books sold to European countries, because their headquarters are in Luxembourg. Instead, the e-book retailers will have to apply the standard UK VAT rate (20%) to e-books sold into the UK. As a result, Luxembourg stands to lose around €800m a year from the ruling, while the UK and Germany stand to gain around €350m each per annum.





It also threatens to raise the price of UK e-books on Amazon, Kobo and Nook websites come January, and begs the question of who will carry the burden of the extra VAT charge those retailers will have to pay.





....





From this date, supplies of these services to any non-VAT registered consumer will be subject to the rate of VAT applicable in the customer’s location—not necessarily straightforward to determine in itself—and, as a result, businesses will need to remit payment to each EU member state where sales occur. To avoid the need to register in up to 28 different EU member states, publishers can opt for the Mini One-Stop Shop (MOSS) alternative: registering in its home jurisdiction only, and submitting only one return and payment.





MOSS: good news or bad?





Businesses can apply for MOSS registration as of October 2014, so that the system is ready to use from 1st January 2015. On the face of it, MOSS is good news. However, there is a nasty “sting in the tail” if businesses fail to comply with the MOSS requirements in each of the 28 member states in which they trade.


.....


While the question of whether retailers will attempt to push extra VAT charges onto publishers and the possibility of higher e-book prices, perhaps the other question will be how the author-publisher deals with this when it comes to direct sales via a website and running a small business.


Like all new laws designed to curb big businesses finding loopholes, they will absorb these changes a lot easier. I fear this may actually hurt the two most important people in the book world as usual — the reader and the author.
- See more at: http://www.theindependentpublishingmagazine.com/2014/10/selling-e-books-in-europe-is-about-to.html#sthash.UZfoo8ii.dpuf